Environment

Hanhikivi 1 is a project that contributes to combatting the climate change. The climate benefit of the Hanhikivi 1 materializes during the decades of electricity production without harmful greenhouse emissions. Before commissioning, Fennovoima's direct environmental impact is mostly related to the construction work carried out at the site.

Management of environmental impacts at the Hanhikivi 1 construction site is based on proactive identification of environmental risks. We ensure that all work is carried out in accordance with environmental legislation and the terms of permits and licenses, and respecting the environment and the well-being of the local residents. We ensure that the Hanhikivi 1 construction site as a whole operates in compliance with environmental legislation, the permit conditions and Fennovoima's environmental requirements. The environmental management system, which was certified under ISO 14001 early in 2018, is an important tool for this.

We monitor the state of the environment together with RAOS Project in accordance with the jointly agreed environmental monitoring program. In addition to the environ- mental monitoring required by the permit conditions, we also carry out voluntary monitoring of the environmental impact. This allows us to ensure that we have comprehensive knowledge of the state of the environment in the Hanhikivi headland. Below is an account of the essential monitoring and research results for 2018.

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

Air quality No increased dust concentrations were found outside the construction site.
Noise The average noise level was 30–68 dB in 2018 (equal to the levels measured in 2017). A level of 30 dB corresponds to the sound of a whisper, and 65 dB to normal speaking voice or laughter. Crushing work ended in May before the busiest nesting season for birds.
Seawater quality No changes due to construction work
Turbidity Construction work has only caused minor turbidity. Monitoring revealed a natural increase in turbidity during heavy rain and storms. The values exceeded the limit where work must be interrupted once, but no work was in progress at the time.
Fishing Test fishing has revealed that the fish have not moved away from the water construction work areas; instead, the catch in these areas has even increased. No changes were ob- served in the fry production of whitefish and Baltic herring, but the construction work may have a ected the fry production of vendace. Some fishing sites have been unavailable during construction, the number of migratory fish has decreased, and fishing nets have been in need of more frequent cleaning than before. 
Benthic fauna In dredged areas, benthic fauna had been reduced significantly and hardly any signs of recovery could be detected. Benthic fauna had also deteriorated in the marine spoil area, but the number of species had only decreased slightly. The state of reference points outside the marine spoil area had also deteriorated significantly, mainly due to the increased population of Marenzelleria viridis. This is a common trend found in the Bay of Bothnia. No changes that could have been the result of construction work were detected to the northeast of the Hanhikivi headland.
Aquatic vegetation The extensive shallow sandy seabed found on the eastern side of the headland is well suited for charophyte meadows, which have been classified as an endangered habitat type. In these areas, charophyte meadows have remained as representa- tive as they previously were. The natural
characteristics of the observation area to the south of the Hanhikivi headland make it a less favorable growth environment than the areas on the eastern side of the head- land. Some temporary impact of dredging operations were observed in the vegetation in the southern observation area.
Oil and chemical leaks There were no significant spills.

PROTECTED SPECIES AND NATURE CONSERVATION AREAS

Seashore meadows No significant changes due to human activity were observed in seashore meadows. The growth of reed (paludification) has caused some regression of one occurrence of Siberian Primrose, but no changes were found in other occurrences.
Gloe lakes No water level variation due to construction work was detected in the gloe lakes. 
Relocated species The protected moor frog population and yellow iris growth, relocated from the construction site in 2015 and 2016 according to the exemption permits, were found to have prospered in follow-up monitoring carried out by an external consultant.

Utilizing construction waste as material or energy

Efficient sorting and recycling as well as appropriate processing are important parts of managing the environmental impact of the waste generated at the site. Contractors must sort the waste in their own work areas before transporting it to the site sorting locations and also manage the processing and storage of hazardous waste in accordance with the applicable regulations.

Most of the waste generated during the construction is normal construction waste. An approximate total of 686 metric tonsof waste was generated at the Hanhikivi 1 construction site in 2018. Most of the waste generated at the site is regular construction waste: metal, wood, concrete, rocks, compostable waste, paper, cardboard, glass, or electrical and electronic waste. Our partner Remeo is in charge of transportingthe waste from the site and processing it appropriately.

Utilization of construction waste as material or energy in 2018. The spoil and rubble generated in excavation, rock blasting and dredging are used as filling and levelling material at the construction site as far as possible.